How the Earth Was Made: Series 1 - BluRay

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Nature Documentary hosted by Corey Johnson, published by History Channel in 2009 - English narration

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Image: How-the-Earth-Was-Made-Series-1-BluRay-Cover.jpg

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From a seething ocean of radioactive, molten rock to a refuge for life as we know it, Earth has undergone a staggering series of cataclysmic transformations in its long and epic history. Assailed relentlessly for millions of years by meteorites, our once toxic and hostile planet has been covered in water and in ice, and seen the rise and sundering of continents, the creation of an atmosphere, and, ultimately, the beginning of life. HOW THE EARTH WAS MADE plots the twisting course of Earth's amazing journey. Using groundbreaking special effects and traveling to remote locations where our planet still bears the scars of its violent history, this compelling documentary tells a story of unimaginable timescales, world-shattering forces, radical climates, and mass extinctions. HISTORY journeys back in time to show the creation of Earth s land masses, the birth of the first complex creatures, and devastating extinctions--before speculating on the future when all life becomes extinct. Spectacular on-location footage, evidence from geologists in the field, and clear, dramatic graphics combine in this stunning 13-part series from HISTORY to show how immensely powerful, and at times violent, forces of geology have formed our planet. Investigate with HISTORY the origins of some of the most well-known locations and geological phenomena in the world. From the Great Lakes to Iceland, the San Andreas Fault to Krakatoa, HOW THE EARTH WAS MADE travels the globe to reveal the physical processes that have shaped our planet. With rocks as their clues and volcanoes, ice sheets, and colliding continents as their suspects, scientists launch a forensic investigation that will help viewers visualize how the earth has evolved and formed over millions of years. Locations covered in "How the Earth Was Made" include Hawaii, a remote island chain brought to being by the movement of super heated magma deep within the earth, to the Marianas Trench, a spot in the sea deeper than Mount Everest is high, where the ocean floor disappears into the centre of the earth. Experience all 13 episodes of this landmark series for the first time on Blu-ray. Produced by Pioneer TV For HISTORY/A & E Television Networks

[edit] San Andreas Fault

The San Andreas Fault runs 800 miles through some of the most valuable real estate in the world. The discovery of earth's moving plates in the 1950s led to a coherent explanation for the San Andreas Fault as a boundary between the North American and Pacific Plates. Originally, the Pacific Plate was forced, or subducted, under the North American Plate about 200 million years ago. Gradually the motions changed course, and about 20 million years ago the two plates began sliding side-by-side in opposite directions. This type of motion, termed strike-slip, creates situations where energy is stored in the crust and released suddenly as earthquakes. Though the southern section hasn't had a significant quake for over 300 years, recent warnings have Los Angeles primed for a destructive quake that could wreak havoc on the city.

[edit] The Deepest Place on Earth

Lying seven miles below the surface of the sea, the Marianas Trench is the deepest place on Earth. Oceanic discoveries in the 1950s and 60s led to the development of a powerful new theory of earth science called plate tectonics. The theory states that the earth's crust consists of about a dozen large, rigid sections called plates. The motions and relative positions of these plates help to determine where earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain ranges occur. The discovery of the Marianas Trench and other features of the ocean floor were important in the development of the theory. Now investigate the mystery of this strange underwater abyss, where a world of fiery mountains, bizarre marine mud volcanoes, and devastating tsunamis reveal how the deepest scar on Earth's crust was created.

[edit] Krakatoa

Once located between the islands of Java and Sumatra in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, Mount Krakatoa disappeared in August, 1883 during one of the largest volcanic eruptions in human history. The eruption unleashed an explosion that was heard more than 2,000 miles away, and triggered a giant 100-foot tsunami that wiped out more than 36,000 people. Today, a new volcano named Anak Krakatau, "Child of Krakatoa", is growing from the flooded caldera that formed during the volcano’s collapse in 1883. What made this corner of our planet so dangerous, and could another catastrophic eruption be on the way?

[edit] Loch Ness

Home to the legend of the Loch Ness monster, this lake holds more water than any other lake in Britain. It's only 10,000 years old, but billions of years in the making. Today we know that the shape of the loch is dictated by an ancient fault line that became reactivated in recent years by the birth of the Atlantic Ocean. Loch Ness is just one of the myriad geological wonders of Scotland where some of the earth's oldest rocks are found along with immense lava flows, extensive faulting, Jurassic age dinosaur fossils, and evidence of recent glaciation. Trace the lake's extraordinary history and find out if the famed monster could really have survived in its murky waters.

[edit] New York

Built on the remains of ancient mountains that 450 million years ago were as tall as the Himalayas, the modern city of New York is one of the most man-made spaces on the planet. The bedrock, known as Manhattan schist, is seen as exposures in Central Park. Elongated crystals in the rocks provide evidence of an ancient mountain building episode. The region had once been subjected to the immense pressures associated with burial to a depth of 20-25 miles beneath the earth's surface. The Manhattan schist represents the last remnants of a soaring mountain range that resulted from the collision of North America with Africa 450 million years ago. The schist is also important in that it forms a solid anchor for the iconic skyscrapers of New York. Learn how everything about it--from the height of its skyscrapers to the position of its harbour--is governed by the amazing forces that shaped it.

[edit] Driest Place on Earth

The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is considered the driest place on earth. A unique set of circumstances conspired to create the characteristics of this region. The Atacama is roughly the size of Iowa, and is located between the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Andes Mountains to the east. The desert features relative humidity values of 10 percent, and receives less than 1 mm of rainfall per year! Groundwater in the desert is located over 200 ft. below the surface. In some places, the surface is barren and moon-like with little to no apparent vegetation. Since human records of the area began, some places in the Atacama Desert have never received rain; yet strange bacteria have been discovered living there. Look into the riddle of this South American desert to discover how this extraordinarily dry landscape was created.

[edit] Great Lakes

The Great Lakes of North America are the largest expanses of fresh water on the planet. Rock layers and deposits of salt beneath the Great Lakes indicate the presence of an inland sea approximately 385 million years ago. A billion years ago, the region had once been subjected to an episode of volcanic rifting where an upwelling of magma had threatened to split the continent apart. Evidence of ancient sandbars demonstrates that the lakes were once much larger, and that they later drained to their current sizes by cataclysmic floods. The land beneath the lakes has also been rising, a phenomenon known as crustal rebound or isostacy. The weight of the mile-thick sheet of ice once depressed the earth's crust. After the relatively fast retreat of the glacial ice, the land has been slowly rising, and will continue into the future. As the lakes settle to their current levels, geologists delve deep in search for clues of their formation, discovering that the Great Lakes' evolutions are far from over.

[edit] Yellowstone

Yellowstone is the world's first national park, and three million people visit the park each year. It was established in 1872 due in part to its unique geology. This National Park houses one of the most dangerous geological features on Earth, a hidden super-volcano overdue for a massive eruption. Despite all of the evidence indicating volcanism at Yellowstone, no smoking cone now exists, and it likely was destroyed during an ancient eruption. The presence of rhyolite indicates an explosive eruption in the past. Areas far from the park such as Meadow Creek, Wyoming display thick deposits of obsidian and tan-colored volcanic ash. Such large amounts of volcanic material indicate that Yellowstone once experienced a titanic volcanic explosion, something larger than anything ever observed in human history. This colossal eruption covered much of the western United States in volcanic ash. One ash layer studied in California provided a date of 640,000 years for the last supereruption. In the past 16.5 million years, the volcano has mysteriously moved hundreds of miles to its present, and active, location. Is this sleeping giant beginning to stir?

[edit] Tsunami

Tsunamis are one of the most terrifying forces of nature, destroying all in their path. Tsunami waves have been present since the beginning of earth's oceans. The energy released by motions in the earth's crust is transformed into monstrous waves that can quickly ravage coastlines and consume everything in their path. Tsunami danger is present all around the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, and also in the Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean. Tsunamis are of great concern due to the increase in coastal populations. Tsunamis can also be generated by landslides and meteor impacts. A landslide-generated tsunami, termed a "megatsunami", occurred in remote Lituya Bay, Alaska in 1958, and the potential for a megatsunami also exists in the Atlantic Ocean’s Canary Islands. The December 26th tsunami in 2004 is estimated to have released energy equal to that of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs, resulting the deaths of 250,000 men, women, and children. What are the enormous forces that generate these catastrophic waves deep on the ocean floor?

[edit] Asteroids

Until recently geologists could find no evidence that asteroids had actually struck the earth. The history of asteroid studies started largely at Meteor Crater, a three-quarter mile wide, 550 foot deep bowl-shaped depression lying in the northern Arizona desert. In the late nineteenth century, geologist Grove Gilbert examined the crater, and initially proposed that it had formed from a meteor impact. The original body was a mass of iron weighing 300,000 tons which entered the atmosphere with a speed of 35 times that of sound! The resulting impact energy that created the crater was likely the equivalent of many thousands of nuclear bombs. Another ancient impact site is found at Sudbury in Canada. At 155 miles in diameter, Sudbury is earth's second largest suspected impact site. It formed nearly 2 billion years ago from an immense impact. See both the immense riches now known to be the result of these giant boulders from space, and the decimation their violent impacts had on the first people to live in America.

[edit] Iceland

The largest and most fearsome volcanic island on the planet, Iceland is being ripped apart by powerful forces lighting its fiery volcanoes. Located in the northern Atlantic Ocean, Iceland is the world's largest volcanic island, and has a land surface the same as the state of Kentucky. The island is also unique in that it is a place where the undersea Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes onto land. In 1946 US Navy sonar operators discovered a 10,000 mile long network of underwater mountains separated by a "giant tear." This was the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and Iceland is one of the few locations where the ridge comes on to land. At the ridge, magma rises to form new ocean floor crust, and adjacent sections of the ocean floor are slowly pushed apart. Here was a force capable of pulling continents apart! Despite lying atop the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the amount of volcanic activity in Iceland is greater than would be expected. Iceland's volcanoes have caused great suffering in the past, and the retreat of the island's glacial ice may allow its volcanoes to erupt violently. Could these volcanoes cause climatic chaos and devastation across the planet?

[edit] Hawaii

Emerging from the centre of the Pacific Ocean, the origins of the Hawaiian islands have remained a puzzle for generations. Located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii is the most isolated group of islands on earth. Due to its stunning beaches, huge canyons, and the largest volcanoes on earth, Hawaii can be described as where paradise meets hell. The main island of Hawaii began as a single volcano named Kohala, which has since become dormant. Later, four additional volcanoes formed and built the island into the immense structure that it is today, the largest mountain on earth. While the older islands are eroding and disappearing, scientists have discovered that a new island is emerging in the ocean just off of the coast of the main island of Hawaii. Once thought to be an extinct volcano, a giant seamount named Loihi displays evidence of recent eruptions, and will likely continue to grow until it becomes the next island in the Hawaiian chain. See what clues their history of raging volcanoes, vast landslides, and mega-tsunamis might hold about the inner workings of our planet.

[edit] The Alps

Spanning seven countries, the Alps are Europe's most important natural landmark. A team of investigators attempts to understand how the Alps evolved, and how long they will be around. Forming the center of Europe, the Alps are a barrier that is 750 miles long and 125 miles wide. The mountains formed 30 million years ago when the continent of Africa collided with Europe, forcing up a section of the ocean floor onto land. But how did marine fossils get there, seven thousand feet above sea level? The mysterious nature of the Alps was first investigated by Renaissance man Leonardo da Vinci in 1510. Leonardo trekked into the mountains to observe fossils that had originally lived in the ocean, but were now located 7,000 feet above sea level, and 100 miles from the ocean. Today we know that a continental collision between Europe and Africa forced sections of the ocean floor (the ancient Tethys Ocean), and older rocks from Africa, onto land to create the Alps. The original Alps were 22,000 feet tall, as high as today's Himalayas. Gravity is the force that ultimately brings down mountains. In 100 million years, the Alps will gradually erode and will eventually resemble today's Appalachian Mountains in the United States.

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[edit] Technical Specs

Video Codec: x264 CABAC High@L4.1
Video Bitrate: 3 751 kb/s
Video Resolution: 1920x1080
Display Aspect Ratio: 16:9
Frames Per Second: 29.970
Audio Codec: AC3
Audio Bitrate: 384 kb/s CBR 48000 Hz
Audio Streams: 2
Audio Languages: english
RunTime Per Part: 44 min
Number Of Parts: 13
Part Size: 1.30 GB
Source: BluRay (Thanks to Shadowman)
Encoded by: DocFreak08

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